Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine

ISSN: 2300-9705     eISSN: 2353-2807    OAI    DOI: 10.18276/cej.2022.3-03
CC BY-SA   Open Access   DOAJ  DOAJ

Lista wydań / Vol. 39, No. 3/2022
The use of Dietary and Protein Supplements by Women Attending Fitness Clubs on a Recreational Basis and an Analysis of the Factors Influencing their Consumption

Autorzy: Joanna Witkoś ORCID
Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University, Poland

Magdalena Hartman-Petrycka ORCID
Department of Basic Biomedical Science, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
Słowa kluczowe: diatery supplements amatour women fitness clubs
Data publikacji całości:2022
Liczba stron:21 (27-47)
Cited-by (Crossref) ?:


The aim of the study was to assess the dietary supplements used by amateur sportswomen training in fitness clubs (F-Fitness) compared to women who do not train (C-Control). Methods. 248 women aged 16 to 31 years (F: 120, C: 128) participated in the study. Results. In group F, 60.00% of women used protein products, 40.83% other dietary supplements, most often: creatine 17.50%, vitamin complexes 10.00%, vitamin D 10.00%, branched chain amino acids 7.50%, fish oil/omega acids 7.50%. A positive predictor of the use of protein supplements was the consumption of vegetables (B: 1.26, 95% CIs: 1.13–11.01). Total supplement use: age (B: 0.27, 95% CIs: 1.09–1.59), number of months of training (B: 0.59, 95% CIs: 1.15–2.81), following the advice of a dietitian (B: 1.50, 95% CIs: 1.45–13.87) and calorie counting (B: 1.54, 95% CIs: 1.49–14.53). Positive predictors of creatine use were: age (B: 0.54, 95% CIs: 1.21–2.42) and calorie count (B: 2.09, 95% CIs: 1.35–48.32). Conclusions. Supplements were more often used by women who were older, who did long training sessions, who were counting calories and those who were seeing a dietitian. Creatine was used more frequently by older women and women counting calories.
Pobierz plik

Plik artykułu


1.ACSM | The American College of Sports Medicine (www.acsm.org).
2.Andres, S., Ziegenhagen, R., Trefflich, I., Pevny, S., Schultruich, K., Braun, H., Schanzer, W., Hirch-Ernst, K.I., Schafer, B., Lampen, A. (2017). Creatine and creatine forms intended for sports nutrition. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 61 (6), 1600772. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201600772.
3.Andrews, A., Wojcik, J.R., Boyd, J.M., Bowers, Ch.J. (2016). Sports nutrition knowledge among Mid-Major Division I university student- athletes. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 3172460. DOI: 10.1155/2016/3172460.
4.Awgul, K., Głąbowski, D., Kopeć, M., Sroczyński, T. (2017). The potential benefits and side-effects resulting from creatine supplementation. Bromatologia i Chemia Toksykologiczna, 2, 122-127.
5.Baume, N., Hellemans, I., Saugy, M. (2007). Guide to over-the-counter sports supplements for athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 8 (1), 2-10.
6.Bojanić, V., Radović, J., Bojanić, Z., Lazović, M. (2011). Hydrosoluble vitamins and sport. Acta Medica Mediterranea, 50 (2), 68-75. DOI: 10.5633/amm.2011.0213.
7.Bojarowicz, H., Płowieć, A. (2010). Influence of vitamin A on skin condition. Problemy Higieny i Epidemiologii, 91, 352-356.
8.Brożyna, K., Tkaczyk, J., Rutkowska, A. (2019). Dietary supplements in sport - side effects. Journal of Education, Health and Sport, 9 (8), 779-782. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3407953.
9.Bruce, C.R., Anderson, M.E., Fraser, S.F., Stepto, N.K., Klein, R., Hopkins, W.G., Hawley, J.A. (2000). Enhancement of 2000-m rowing performance after caffeine ingestion. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32 (11), 1958-1963. DOI: 10.1097/00005768-200011000-00021.
10.Burke, L.M. (2008). Caffeine and sports performance. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 33 (6), 1319-1334. DOI: 10.1139/ H08-130.
11.Burke, L.M., Hawley, J.A. (2018). Swifter, higher, stronger: What’s on the menu? Science, 362 (6416), 781-787. DOI: 10.1126/science. aau2093.
12.Burrus, B.M., Moscicki, B.M., Matthews, T.D., Paolone, V.J. (2018). The effect of acute L-carnitine and carbohydrate intake on cycling performance. International Journal of Exercise Science, 11 (2), 404-416.
13.Butts, J., Jacobs, B., Silvis, M. (2018). Creatine use in sports. Sports Health, 10 (1), 31-34. DOI: 10.1177/1941738117737248.
14.Carvalho, V.H., Oliveira, A.H.S., de Oliveira, L.F., da Silva, R.P., Di Mascio, P., Gualano, B., Artioli, G.G., Medeiros, M,H.G. (2018). Exercise and p-alanine supplementation on carnosine-acrolein adduct in skeletal muscle. Redox Biology, 18, 222-228. DOI: 10.1016/j.redox.2018.07.009.
15.Durazzo, A., Lucarini, M., Nazhand, A., Souto, S.B., Silva, A,M., Severino, P., Souto, E.B., Santini, A. (2020). The nutraceutical value of carnitine and its use in dietary supplements. Nutrients, 25 (9), 2127. DOI: 10.3390/molecules25092127.
16.Fielding, R., Riede, L., Lugo, J.P., Bellamine, A. (2018). L-Carnitine supplementation in recovery after exercise. Nutrients, 10 (3), 349. DOI: 10.3390/nu10030349.
17.Frączek, B., Gacek, M., Grzelak, A. (2012). Nutritional support of physical abilities in a professional athletes’ group. Problemy Higieny i Epidemiologii, 93 (4), 817-823.
18.Gavrilova, N., Chernopolskaya, N., Rebezov, M., Schetinina, E., Dogareva, N., Likhodeevskaya, O., Knysh, I., Sankova, Z. (2020). Specialized sports nutrition foods: review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 12, 998-1003. DOI: 10.31838/ ijpr/2020.12.02.0152.
19.Harty, P.S., Zabriskie, H.A., Erickson, J.L., Molling, P.E., Kerksick, Ch.M., Jagim, A.R. (2018). Multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements, safety implications, and performance outcomes: a brief review. Journal of International Society of Sports Nutrition, 15 (1), 41. DOI: 10.1186/s12970-018-0247-6.
20.Higgins, M.R., Izadi, A., Kaviani, M. (2020). Antioxidants and exercise performance: with a focus on vitamin E and C supplementation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17 (22), 8452. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17228452.
21.Housman, J.M., Dorman, S.M. (2008). Diatery and sports supplements: the need for a systematic tracking system. American Journal of Health Studies, 23, 35-40.
22.Jager, R., Mohr, A.E., Carpenter, K.C., Kerksick, Ch.M., Purpura, M., Moussa, A., Townsend, J.R., Lamprecht, M., West, N.P., Black, K., Gleeson, M., Pyne, D.B., Wells, S.D., Arent, S.M., Smith-Ryan, A.B., Kreider, R.B., Campbell, B.I., Bannock, L., Scheiman, J., Wissent, C.J., Pane, M., Kalman, D.S., Pugh, J.N., A Ter Haar, J., Antonion, J. (2019). International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: Probiotics. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 16 (1), 62. DOI: 10.1186/s12970-019-0329-0.
23.Jeukendrup, A.A. (2014). Step towards personalized sports nutrition: carbohydrate intake during exercise. Sports Medicine, 44 (Suppl. 1), 25-33. DOI: 10.1007/s40279-014-0148-z.
24.Jîtcă, G., Tero-Vescan, A., Miklos, A., Vari, C-E., Osz, B.E. (2018). Differences in dietary supplements used by performance athletes and recreationally active individuals. Campiono Italiano Velocita. Sport, 19 (3), 153-157. DOI: 10.26659/pm3.2018.19.3.153.
25.Kerksick, Ch.M., Wilborn, C.D., Roberts, M.D., Smith-Ryan, A., Kleiner, S.M., Jager, R., Collins, R., Cooke, M., Davis, J.N., Galvan, E., Greenwood, M., Lowely, L.M., Wildman, R., Antonio, J., Kreider, R.B. (2018). ISSN exercise & sports nutrition review update: research & recommendations. Journal of International Society of Sports Nutrition, 15 (1), 38. DOI: 10.1186/s12970-018-0242-y.
26.Kotnik, K.Z., Jurak, G., Starc, G., Puc, M., Golja, P. (2018). Use of dietary supplements in differently physically active adolescents. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 57 (8), 231-241.
27.Kreider, R.B., Kalman, D.S., Antonio, J., Ziegenfuss, T.N., Wildman, R., Collins, R., Candow, D.G., Kleiner, S.M., Almada, A.L., Lopez, H.L. (2017). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine. Journal of International Society and Sports Nutrition, 14, 18. DOI: 10.1186/s12970-017-0173-z.
28.Krejpcio, Z., Skwarek, K., Hyżyk, A.K., Dyba, S. (2011). Evaluation of prevalence of dietary supplements intake in a selected group of sports people. Problemy Higieny i Epidemiologii, 92 (4), 935-938.
29.Lee, J.K.W., Nio, A.Q.X., WeeHon; A., Law, L.Y.L., Lim, Ch.L. (2011). Effects of ingesting a sports drink during exercise and recovery on subsequent endurance capacity. European Journal of Sports Science, 11 (2), 77-86. DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2010.487115.
30.Martinovic, D., Tokic, D., Vilovic, M., Rusic, D., Bukic, J., Bozic, J. (2021). Sport dietary supplements and physical activity in biomedical students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18 (4), 2046. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18042046.
31.Maughan, R.J., Burke, L.M., Dvorak, J., Larson-Meyer, D.E., Peeling, P., Phillips, S.M., Rawson, E.S., Walsh, N.P., Garthe, I., Geyer, H., et al. (2018). IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52 (7), 439-455. DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-099027.
32.Maughan, R.J., Shirreffs, S.M. (2018). Making decisions about supplement use. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 28 (2), 212-219. DOI: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0009.
33.Meng, X., Sun, J., Wu, M. (2015). Market structure and case analysis of sport nutrient food industry. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 7, 82-87.
34.Mielgo-Ayuso, J., Calleja-Gonzalez, J., Marques-Jimenez, D., Caballero-Garc^a, A., Córdova, A., Fernandez-Lazaro, D. (2019). Effects of creatine supplementation on athletic performance in soccer players: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients, 11 (4), 757. DOI: 10.3390/nu11040757.
35.Mujika, I., Burke, L.M. (2010). Nutrition in Team Sports. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 57 (Suppl 2), 26-35. DOI: 10.1159/000322700.
36.Nemet, D., Eliakim, A. (2007). Protein and amino acid supplementation in sport. International Journal of Sports Medicine Journal, 8 (1), 11-23. DOI: 10520/EJC48606.
37.Okuroglu, E., Tekin, T., Kuloglu, M., Mercan, S., Bavunoglu, I., Acikkol, M., Turkmen, Z. (2019). Investigation of caffeine concentrations in sport supplements and inconsistencies in product labelling. Journal of Chemical Metrology, 13 (1), 21-28. DOI: 10.25135/ jcm.
38.Peeling, P., Castell, L.M., Derave, W., de Hon, O., Burke, L.L. (2019). Sports foods and dietary supplements for optimal function and performance enhancement in track-and-field athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 29 (2), 198-209. DOI: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0271.
39.Poulios, A., Georgakouli, K., Draganidis, D., Deli, Ch.K., Tsimeas, P.D., Chatzinikolaou, A., Papanikolaou, K., Batrakoulis, A., Mohr, M., Jamurtas, A.Z., Fatouros, IG. (2019). Protein-based supplementation to enhance recovery in team sports: what is the evidence? Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 18 (3), 523-536.
40.Ramos-Jimenez, A., Hernandez-Torres, R.P., Wall-Medrano, A., Torres-Duran, PV., Juarez-Oropeza, M.A., Viloria, M., Villalobos- Molina, R. (2014). Gender- and hydration-associated differences in the physiological response to spinning. Nutriction Hospitalaria, 29 (3), 644-651. DOI: 10.3305/nh.2014.29.3.7017.
41.Rawson, E.S., Miles, M.P., Larson-Meyer, D.E. (2018). Dietary supplements for health, adaptation, and recovery in atheltes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 28 (2), 188-199. DOI: 10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0340.
42.Rusu, M.E., Popa, D.S. (2016). Protein food and amino acid supplements in athletes’ diet. Campiono Italiano Velocita. Sport, 17 (2), 146-152.
43.Santesteban Moriones, V., Ibanez Santos, J. (2017). Ergogenic aids in sport. Nutrition Hospitalaria, 34 (1), 204-215. DOI: 10.20960/ nh.997.
44.Saunders, B., Elliott-Sale, K., Artioli, G.G., Swinton, P.A., Dolan, E., Roschel, H., Gualano, B. (2017). Beta-alanine supplementation to improve exercise capacity and performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51 (8), 658-669. DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-096396.
45.Savino, G., Valenti, L., D’Alisera1, R., Pinelli, M., Persi, T., Trenti, T. (2019). Dietary supplements, drugs and doping in the sport society. Annali di igiene: medicina preventica e di comunita, 31 (6), 548-555. DOI: 10.7416/ai.2019.2315.
46.Sparks, I.M., Janse van Rensburg, D.C., Fletcher, L., Jansen van Rensburg, A. (2018). A cross-sectional study of 2550 amateur cyclists shows lack of knowledge regarding relevant sports nutrition guidelines. The South African Journal of Sports Medicine, 30 (1), 1-6. DOI: 10.17159/2078-516X/2018/v30i1a2963.
47.Supplements | Australian Institute of Sport (ais.gov.au).
48.Thielecke, F., Blannin, A. (2020). Omega-3 fatty acids for sport performance—are they equally beneficial for athletes and amateurs? A narrative review. Nutrients, 12 (12), 3712. DOI: 10.3390/nu12123712.
49.Trexler, E.T., Smith-Ryan, A.E., Stout, J.R., Hoffman, J.R., Wilborn, C.D., Sale, C., Kreider, R.B., Jager, R., Earnest, C.P., Bannock, L., Campbell, B., Kalman, D., Ziegenfuss, T.N., Antonio, J. (2015). International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta- Alanine. Journal of International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12, 30. DOI: 10.1186/s12970-015-0090-y.
50.Urdampilleta, A., Gómez-Zorita, S. (2014). From dehydration to hyperhidration isotonic and diuretic drinks and hyperhydratant aids in sport. Nutriction Hospitalaria, 29 (1), 21-25. DOI: 10.3305/nh.2014.29.1.6775.
51.Valenta, R., Dorofeeva, Y.A. (2018). Sport nutrition: the role of macronutrients and minerals in endurance exercises. Foods and Raw Materials, 6 (2), 403-412. DOI: 10.21603/2308-4057-2018-2-403-412.
52.Van Dusseldorp, T.A., Escobar, K.A., Johnson, K.E., Stratton, M.T., Moriarty, T., Cole, N., McCormick, J.J., Kerksick, Ch.M., Vaughan, R.A., Dokladny, K., Kravitz, L., Mermier, Ch.M. (2018). Effect of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on recovery following acute eccentric exercise. Nutrients, 10 (10), 1389. DOI: 10.3390/nu10101389.
53.Venkatraman, J.T., Leddy, J., Pendergast, D. (2000). Dietary fats and immune status in athletes: clinical implications. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32 (Suppl 7), 389-395. DOI: 10.1097/00005768-200007001-00003.
54.Vitale, K., Getzin, A. (2019). Nutrition and supplement update for the endurance athlete: review and recommendations. Nutrients, 11 (6), 1289. DOI: 10.3390/nu11061289.
55.Volf, E., Simakova, I., Eliseev, Y., Perkel, R., E. Malyshev, E., Zinin, A. (2020). Quality and safety problems of sports nutrition products. Agronomy Research, 18 (3), 1888-1896. DOI: 10.15159/AR.20.092.
56.Waldron, M., Whelan, K., Jeffries, O., Burt, D., Howe, L., Patterson, S.D. (2017). The effects of acute branched-chain amino acid supplementation on recovery from a single bout of hypertrophy exercise in resistance-trained athletes. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 42 (6), 630-636. DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2016-0569.
57.Ward, W.E., Chilibeck, F.D., Comelli, E.M., Duncan, A.M., Phillips, S.M., Lindsay E. Robinson, L.E., Stellingwerf, T. (2019). Research in nutritional supplements and nutraceuticals for health, physical activity, and performance: moving forward. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 44 (5), 455-460. DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2018-0781.
58.Whitehouse, G., Lawlis, T. (2017). Protein supplements and adolescent athletes: A pilot study investigating the risk knowledge, motivations and prevalence of use. Nutrition & Dietetics, 74 (5), 509-515. DOI: 10.1111/1747-0080.12367.
59.Williams, C., Rollo, I. (2015). Carbohydrate nutrition and team sport performance. Sports Medicine, 45 (Suppl 1), 13-22. DOI: 10.1007/ s40279-015-0399-3.
60.Williams, M.H. (2004). Dietary supplements and sports performance: introduction and vitamins. Journal of International Society and Sports Nutrition, 1 (2), 1-6. DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-1-2-1.
61.Wójcicki, K. (2020). FTIR spectroscopy for quality evaluation of sports supplements on the Polish market. Foods and Raw Materials, 8 (1), 177-185. DOI: 10.21603/2308-4057-2020-1-177-185.
62.Zeppa, S.D., Agostini, D., Gervasi, M., Annibalini, G., Amatori, S., Ferrini, F., Sisti, D., Piccoli, G., Barbieri, E., Sestili, P., Stocchi, V. (2020). Mutual interactions among exercise, sport supplements and microbiota. Nutrients, 12 (1), 17. DOI: 10.3390/nu12010017.