Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine

ISSN: 2300-9705     eISSN: 2353-2807    OAI
CC BY-SA   Open Access   DOAJ  DOAJ

Lista wydań / Vol. 7, No. 3/2014
The Ability to Maintain Attention during Visuomotor Task Performance in Handball Players and Non-Athletes

Autorzy: Beata Florkiewicz
Szczecin University, Faculty of Physical Culture and Health Promotion, Poland

Sławomir Fogtman
Szczecin University, Faculty of Physical Culture and Health Promotion, Poland

Anna Kszak-Krzyżanowska
State Higher Vocational School in Wałcz, Poland

Teresa Zwierko
Szczecin University, Faculty of Physical Culture and Health Promotion, Poland
Słowa kluczowe: sustained attention handball reaction time
Data publikacji całości:2014
Liczba stron:8 (99-106)


One of the important aspects of attentional processes in sport performance is sustained attention during task execution. The objective of this study was to analyze the ability to maintain attention during a serial reaction time task performance in expert handball players (n = 12) and non-athletes (n = 12). Participants p erform a FitLight TrainerTM (Fitlight Sports Corp., Canada) test protocol configured by the PDA controller which consisted of 10 series of simple motor reaction task to visual stimuli appearing on 8 wireless light discs. Each of the 10 series included 22 reactions. Ability to maintain attention was determined by analyzing the variability in results during testing, e.g. the total time of test execution and the average reaction time to visual stimulus in each subsequent series. The main finding in our study was that Non-athletes in comparison to Athletes had: (1) longer total time of test execution; (2) longer reaction time; (3) and higher variability in results during task performance. The results indicate a higher level of ability to maintain attention in handball players.
Pobierz plik

Plik artykułu


1.Alves H., Voss M.W., Boot W.R., Deslandes A., Cossich V., Salles J.I., Kramer A.F. Perceptual-cognitive expertise in elite volleyball players. Frontiers in Psychology. 2013; 4: 1–9.
2.Ando S., Kida N., Oda S. Central and peripheral visual reaction time of soccer players and nonathletes. Percept Mot Skills. 2001; 92: 786–794.
3.Bańkosz Z., Nawara H., Ociepa M. Assessment of simple reaction time in badminton players. TRENDS in Sport Sciences. 2013; 1 (20): 54–61.
4.Castiello U., Umilta` C. Orienting of attention in volley-ball players. International Journal of Sport Psychology. 1992; 23: 301–310.
5.Collins D. Psychophysiology and Athletic Performance. In: B. Blumenstaein, M. Bar-Eli, G. Tenenbaum. Brain and Body in Sport and Exercise. U.S.A: Wiley. 2002: 15–37.
6.Delpont E., Dolisi C., Suisse G., Bodino G., Gastaud M. Visual evoked potentials: Differences related to physical activity. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 1991; 12: 293–298.
7.Doğan B. Multiple-choice reaction and visual perception in female and male elite athletes. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2009; 49 (1): 91–96.
8.Erickson G. Sports Vision: Vision Care for the Enhancement of Sports Performance. Butterworth-Heinemann, St. Louis, Mo 2007.
9.Giglia G., Brighina F., Zangla D., Bianco A., Chiavetta E., Palma A., Fierro B. Visuospatial attention lateralization in volleyball players and in rowers. Percept Mot Skills. 2011; 112 (3): 915–925.
10.Hüttermann S., Memmert D. Does the inverted-U function disappear in expert athletes? An analysis of the attentional behavior under physical exercise of athletes and non-athletes. Physiol Behav. 2014; 28 (131): 87–92.
11.Jin H., Xu G., Zhang J.X., Ye Z., Wang S., Zhao L., Mo L. Athletic training in badminton players modulates the early C1 component of visual evoked potentials: A preliminary investigation. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 2010; 78: 308–314.
12.Kokubu M., Ando S., Kida N., Oda S. Interference effects between saccadic and key-press reaction times of volleyball players and nonathletes. Percept Mot Skills, 2006; 103 (3): 709–716.
13.Lage G.M., Gallo L.G.,. Cassiano G.J.M,. Lobo I.L.B, Vieira M.V., Salgado J.V., Fuentes D., Malloy-Diniz L.F. Correlations between Impulsivity and Technical Performance in Handball Female Athletes. Psychology. 2011; 2 (7): 721–726.
14.Mann D.T.Y., Williams A.M., Ward P., Janelle C.M. Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. 2007; 29: 457–478.
15.Memmert D. Pay attention! A review of visual attentional expertise in sport. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2009; 2: 119–138.
16.Muiños M, Ballesteros S. (Peripheral vision and perceptual asymmetries in young and older martial arts athletes and non-athletes. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics. 2014; 5: 14–26.
17.Nakata H., Yoshie M., Miura A., Kudo K. Characteristics of the athletes’ brain: Evidence from neurophysiology and neuroimaging. Brain Research Reviews. 2010; 62: 197–211.
18.Nougier V., Rossi B. The development of expertise in the orientation of attention. International Journal of Sport Psychology. 1999; 30: 246–260.
19.Özmerdivenli R., Bulut S., Bayar H., Karacabey K., Ciloglu F., Peker I., Uner, T. Effects of exercise on visual evoked potentials. International Journal of Neuroscience. 2005; 115: 1043–1050.
20.Porter J.M., Ostrowski E.J., Nolan R.P., Wu W.F. Standing long-jump performance is enhanced when using an external focus of attention. J Strength Cond Res. 2010; 24: 1746–1750.
21.Sarter M., Givens B., Bruno J.P. The cognitive neuroscience of sustained attention: where top-down meets bottom-up. Brain Res Rev. 2001; 35 (2): 146–160.
22.Shea C.H., Wulf G. Enhancing motor learning through external-focus instruction and feedback. Human Movement Science. 1999; 18: 553–557.
23.Voss M.W., Kramer A.F., Basak C., Prakash R.S., Roberts B. Are expert athletes “expert” in the cognitive laboratory? A meta-analytic review of basic attention and perception and sport expertise. Applied Cognitive Psychology. 2009; 24: 812–826.
24.Wimshurst Z.L., Sowden P.T., Cardinale M. Visual skills and playing positions of Olympic field hockey players. Percept Mot Skills. 2012; 114 (1): 204–216.
25.Zachry T., Wulf G., Mercer J., Bezodis N. Increased movement accuracy and reduced EMG activity as the result of adopting an external focus of attention. Brain Research Bulletin. 2005; 67: 304–309.
26.Zwierko T. Differences in peripheral perception between athletes and nonathletes. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2008; 19: 53–62.
27.Zwierko T., Lesiakowski P. Visuomotor processing after progressively increased physical exercise. Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine. 2014; 5 (1): 27–34.
28.Zwierko T., Lubiński W., Lesiakowski P., Steciuk H., Piasecki L., Krzepota J. Does athletic training in volleyball modulate the components of visual evoked potentials? A preliminary investigation. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2014 [Epub ahead of print].
29.Zwierko T., Lubiński W., Lubkowska A., Niechwiej-Szwedo E., Czepita D. The effect of progressively increased physical efforts on visual evoked potentials in volleyball players and non-athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2011; 29 (14): 1563–1572.
30.Zwierko T., Osiński W., Lubiński W., Czepita D., Florkiewicz B. Speed of visual sensorimotor processes and conductivity in visual pathway in volleyball players. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2010; 23: 21–27.