Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine

ISSN: 2300-9705     eISSN: 2353-2807    OAI    DOI: 10.18276/cej.2020.1-02
CC BY-SA   Open Access   DOAJ  DOAJ

Issue archive / Vol. 29, No. 1/2020
Representativeness of Offensive Scenarios to Evaluate Perceptual-Cognitive Skills of Water Polo Players

Authors: Filipe Casanova
University Lusófona of Porto, Portugal

Ricardo Pereira
Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport (CIFI2D), Faculty of Sport (FADEUP), University of Porto, Portugal

Sofia Canossa
Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport (CIFI2D), Faculty of Sport (FADEUP), University of Porto, Portugal

Maickel Padilha
Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport (CIFI2D), Faculty of Sport (FADEUP), University of Porto, Portugal

Rafael Bagatin
Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport (CIFI2D), Faculty of Sport (FADEUP), University of Porto, Portugal

Israel Teoldo
Centre of Research and Studies in Soccer, The University Federal of Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil

Sixto González-Víllora
Faculty of Education, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Cuenca, Spain

Ricardo J. Fernandes
Porto Biomechanics Laboratory (LABIOMEP), University of Porto, Portugal

Fernando Tavares
Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport (CIFI2D), Faculty of Sport (FADEUP), University of Porto, Portugal
Keywords: decision-making Attacking Game Scenarios reliability water polo
Year of publication:2020
Page range:9 (11-19)
Cited-by (Crossref) ?:


The aim of this study was to trial several attacking offensive sequences as representative for further use in research on the perceptual-cognitive skills of water polo players. Elite water polo coaches were presented with separate test film sequences encompassing 80 structured water polo offensive plays. Each clip was approximately 6 s–7 s long with an inter-clip interval of 5 s–10 s, where a red dot was displayed on-screen at the start of the clip to indicate the area of first appearance of the ball. The order of presentation of the video clips was counterbalanced and randomly determined. The criteria were scored on a 5-point Likert-type scale. From the 80 clips presented, only 56 showed high agreement (W = 1; p < 0.05) and internal consistence reliability between the expert observers (α = 0.980; p < 0.05). Furthermore, a very high reproducibility (Z = 0; p = 1) was obtained between viewing sessions. The results obtained determine that 56 offensive scenarios were representative of the water polo game and as such may be useful in evaluating the perceptual-cognitive skills of the players.
Download file

Article file


1.Abernethy, B., Katherine, T., Jerry, T. (1993). Strategies for improving understanding of motor expertise (Or mistakes we have made and things we have learning!!!). In: J. Starkes, F. Allard (eds), Cognitive Issues in Motor Expertise (pp. 317-353). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.
2.Abernethy, B., Zawi, K. (2007). Pickup of essential kinematics underpins expert perception of movement patterns. Journal of Motor Behavior, 39 (5), 353-367.
3.Ali, A. (2011). Measuring Soccer Skill Performance: A Review. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science Sports, 1-15.
4.Américo H.B., Kowalski, M., Cardoso, F., Kunrath, C.A., González-Víllora, S., Teoldo, I. (2018). Difference in declarative tactical knowledge between u-11 and u-15 soccer players. Human Movement, 18 (5), 25-30.
5.Canossa, S., Garganta, J., Argudo, F., & Fernandes, R. (2009). Indicadores táctico-técnicos de sucesso do jogo de polo aquático de elite. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, 3 (3), 209-219.
6.Casanova, F., Garganta, J., Oliveira, J., (2012). Representativeness of offensive scenarios to evaluate perceptual-cognitive expertise of soccer players. The Open Sports Sciences Journal, 5, 161-166.
7.Casanova, F., Garganta, J., Silva, G., Alves, A., Oliveira, J., Williams, M. (2013). The effects of prolonged intermittent exercise on perceptual-cognitive processes in soccer players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 45 (8), 1610-1617.
8.Causer, J., Barach, P., Williams, M. (2014). Expertise in medicine: using the expert performance approach to improve simulation training. Medical Education, 48 (2), 115-123.
9.Dawes, J. (2008). Do data characteristics change according to the number of scale points used? An experiment using 5-point, 7-point and 10-point scales. International Journal of Marketing Research, 50 (1), 61-77.
10.Dicks, M., Button, C., Davids, K. (2010). Examination of gaze behaviors under in situ and video simulation task constraints reveals differences in information pickup for perception and action. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, 72 (3), 706-720.
11.Ericsson, K., Smith, J. (1991). Prospects and limits of the empirical study of expertise: An introduction. In: K. Ericsson, J. Smith (eds), Toward a general theory of expertise: Prospects and limits (pp. 118). New York: Cambridge University Press.
12.Eriksson, K., Simon, H. (1999). Protocol Analysis: Verbal reports as data. United States of America: Massachusets Institute of Technology.
13.Escalante, Y., Saavedra, J., Mansilla, M., Tella, V. (2011). Discriminatory Power of Water Polo Game-related statistics at the 2008 Olympic games. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29 (3), 291298.
14.Farrow, D., Reid, M. (2013). Contribuition of Situation Probability Information to Anticipatory Skill. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 15 (4), 368373.
15.Hartley, S., MacLean Jr, W. (2006). A review of the reliability and validity of Likert-type scales for people with intellectual disabillity. Journal of Intellectual Disability, 50 (part II), 813-827.
16.Kiourmourtzoglou, E., Kourtessis, T., Michalopoulou, M., Derri, V. (1998). Differences in several perceptual abilities between experts and novices in basketball, volleyball and water-polo. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 86 (3), 899-912.
17.Lupo, C., Capranica, L., Mingatti, C., Cortis, C., Tessitore, A., Perroni, F. (2012). Effects of competition level on the centre forward role of men's Water Polo. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30 (9), 889-897.
18.Lupo, C., Tessitore, A., Minganti, C., Capranica, L. (2010). Notational analysis of elite and sub-elite water polo matches. Journal of Strenght and Conditioning Research, 24 (1), 223-229.
19.Mann, D., Williams, M., Ward, P., Janelle, C. (2007). Perceptual-Cognitive Expertise in Sport: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29, 457-478.
20.Marteniuk, R. G. (1976). Information processing in motor skills. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
21.McRobert, A., Ward, P., Eccles, D., Williams, M. (2011). The effect of manipulating context-specific information on perceptual–cognitive processes during a simulated anticipation tas. Brithish Journal of Psychology, 102, 519-534.
22.Mirvic, E., Rasidagic, F., Nurkovic, N., Kajmovic, H., Lupo, C. (2019). Only unbalanced games are affected by technical and tactical aspects able to discriminate winning and losing performance in women’s water polo Olympic Games. Sport Science and Health, 15, 427-434.
23.North, J., Ward, P., Ericsson, A., Williams, M. (2011). Mechanisms underlying skilled anticipation and recognition in a dynamic and temporally constrained domain. Memory, 19 (2), 155-168.
24.Ordóñez, E.G., Pérez, C.I., González, C.T. (2016). Performance assessment in water polo using compositional data analysis. Journal of Human Kinetics, 54 (1), 143-151.
25.Oslin, J., Mitchell, S., Griffin, L. (1998). The Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI): Development and Preliminary Validation. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 17, 231-243.
26.Quevedo-Junyent, L., Aznar-Casanova, J., Merindano-Encina, D., Cardona, G., Solé-Fortó, J. (2011). Comparison of Dynamic Visual Acuity Between Water Polo Players and Sedentary Students. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82 (4), 644-651.
27.Roca, A., Williams, M., Ford, P. (2014). Caturing and Testing perceptual-cognitive expertise: A comparison of stationary and movement response methods. Behavioral Research, 46, 173-177.
28.Saavedra, J., Escalante , Y., Madera, J., Mansilla, M., Garcia-Hermoso, A. (2014). Comparison of Game-Related Statistics in Men’s International Champioship's between Winning and Losing Teams according to Margin of Victory. Collegium Antropologicum, 38 (3), 901-907.
29.Savelsbergh, G. J. P., Williams, M., Van der Kamp, J., Ward, P. (2002). Visual search, anticipation and expertise in soccer goalkeepers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 279-287.
30.Santos, R., Dias, G., Mendes, R., Coelho-e-Silva, M. (2016). Performance evaluation in sports games: GPAI e TSAP. Conexões: Ciência e Tecnologia, 14 (2), 137-157.
31.Vickers, J. (2007). Perception, Cognition and Decision Training: The Quiet Eye in Action (1st Ed.). Human Kinetics.
32.Williams, M. (2000). Perceptual skill in soccer: Implications for talent identification and development. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 737-750.
33.Williams, M. (2002). Perceptual and Cognitive Expertise in Sport. The Psychologist, 15 (8), 416-417.
34.Williams, M., Davids, K. (1995). Declarative knowledge in sport: A by-product of experience or a characteristic of expertise? Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17 (3), 259-275.
35.Williams, M., Davids, K., Burwitz, L., Williams, J.G. (1994). Visual search strategies in experienced and inexperienced soccer players. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 65 (2), 127-135.
36.Williams, M., Ericsson, K. (2005). Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport: Some considerations when applying the expert performance approach. Human Movement Sciences, 24, 283-307.
37.Williams, M., Davids, K., Williams, J. (1999). Visual Perception and Action in Sports. London: E & FN Spon.
38.Williams, M., Ford, P., Eccles, D., Ward, P. (2011). Perceptual-Cognitive Expertise in Sport and its Acquisition: Implications for Applied Cognitive Psychology. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 432-442.
39.Williams, M., Hodges, N., North, J., Barton, G. (2006). Perceiving patterns of play in dynamic sport tasks: investigating the essential information underlying skilled performance. Perception, 35 (3), 317-332.
40.Williams, M., Paul, W., Julian, W., Nicolas, S. (2008). Domain Specificity, Task Specificity and Expert Performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79 (3), 428-433.
41.Zeuwts, L., Vansteenkiste, P., Deconinck, F., van Maarseveen, M., Savelsbergh, G., Cardon, G., Lenoir, M. (2016). Is gaze behaviour in a laboratory context similar to that in real-life? A study in bicyclists. Transportation Research part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 43, 131-140.