Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine

ISSN: 2300-9705     eISSN: 2353-2807    OAI    DOI: 10.18276/cej.2018.4-03
CC BY-SA   Open Access   DOAJ  DOAJ

Lista wydań / Vol. 24, No. 4/2018
The Effect of Visual Speed Swimming Control in Swimmers’ Threshold Training

Autorzy: Stefan Szczepan ORCID
Department of Swimming, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland

Krystyna Zatoń ORCID
Department of Swimming, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland

Jacek Borkowski ORCID
Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland
Słowa kluczowe: controlling swimming speed visual information threshold training
Rok wydania:2018
Liczba stron:10 (25-34)
Cited-by (Crossref) ?:


Controlling swimming speed is an important factor as far as accomplishing swimming training tasks is concerned. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of visual information about control of swimming speed in threshold training for swimmers. Six swimmers took part in this experiment. The study consisted of two exercise tests in which the participants swam 10 x 100m. Individually designated task time corresponded to intensity of 95-100% of anaerobic threshold (AnT) intensity. AnT was determined in a progressive test prior to the experiment. In the first exercise test participants did not receive information regarding their swimming speed. In the second test visual information regarding their swimming speed was transmitted in real time using the Swimming Pace Control System device. The effect of visual control of swimming speed in threshold training for swimmers was determined by measuring the time needed to complete the test distances, heart rate and lactate concentration. Visual information used in swimming speed control in real-time statistically significantly reduces the differences between the assumed and actual time needed to complete the test distance (p=0.057). Visual control of swimming speed resulted in an appropriate level achievement of intensity for threshold training, which was measured by swimming time (inaccuracy 6.97±1.38 s), heart rate ( 162.7±15.9 beat/min), and lactate concentration ( 4.70±1.78mmol/l). Comparing the increase in lactate concentration and exercise test with visual information, statistically significant differences are not observed (p=0.710; p=0.947). However, among 33.33% of the subjects, lactate concentration after training without visual information did not meet the standards (4 to 5 mmol/l) of threshold training (8.85 mmol/l and 14.57 mmol/l). Additionally, value of standard deviations of lactate concentration after threshold training with visual information amounted to 37.87% mean of lactate concentration, and in the condition without information 84.00% mean of lactate concentration. The results indicate the need to use concurrent visual information provided in real-time allowing you to control the swimming speed in swimming training.
Pobierz plik

Plik artykułu


1.Anderson, D.I., Magill, R.A., Sekiya, H., Ryan, G. (2005). Support for an explanation of the guidance effect in motor skill learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 37 (3), 231-238.
2.Andrieux, M., Proteau, L. (2016). Observational learning: tell beginners what they are about to watch and they will learn better. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 51, 1-9.
3.Barbosa, T., Keskinen, K., Fernandes, R., Colaço, P., Lima, A., Vilas-Boas, J.P. (2005). Energy cost and intracyclic variation of the velocity of the centre of mass in butterfly stroke. European journal of applied physiology, 93, 519-523.
4.Bassett, D.R. Jr, Howley E.T. (2000). Limiting factors for maximum oxygen uptake and determinants of endurance performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 32 (1), 70-84.
5.Binder R.K., Wonisch M., Corra U., Cohen-Solal A., Vanhees L., Saner H., Schmid J.P. (2008). Methodological approach to the first and second lactate threshold in incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing. European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation, 15(6), 726-734.
6.Bishop D., Edge J., Davis C., Goodman C. (2004). Induced metabolic alkalosis affects muscle metabolism and repeated-sprint ability. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 36 (5), 807-813.
7.Bishop, D., Edge, J., Davis, C., Goodman, C. (2004). Induced metabolic alkalosis affects muscle metabolism and repeated-sprint ability. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 36 (5), 807-813.
8.Bompa, T.G. Haff, G. (2009). Periodization. Theory and Methodology of Training. 5th edition. Human Kinetics, Champaign, Illinois Chapter 11.
9.Chinnasamy, C., St Clair Gibson, A., Micklewright, D. (2013). Effect of spatial and temporal cues on athletic pacing in schoolchildren. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 45 (2), 395-402.
10.Costill, D.L., Thomas, R., Robergs, R.A., Pascoe, D., Lambert, C., Barr, S., Fink, W.J. (1991). Adaptations to swimming training: influence of training volume. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23, 371-377.
11.Diebel, S.R., Newhouse, I., Thompson, D.S., Johnson, V.B.K (2017). Changes in Running Economy, Respiratory Exchange Ratio and VO2max in Runners following a 10-day Altitude Training Camp. International journal of exercise science, 1, 10, (4), 629-639.
12.Glaister, M. (2005). Multiple sprint work: physiological responses, mechanisms of fatigue and the influence of aerobic fitness. Sports Medicine, 35 (9), 757-777.
13.Gonzalez, V., Sanchis, E., Villalobos, M., Brizuela, G., Llana, S., Tella, V. (2002). A new electronic system for the control of swimming speed. In: J.C. Chatard (ed.), Book of abstract: Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming IX. (pp. 67-69) France: Publications de l’Université de Saint-Étienne.
14.Goodwin, M.L, Harris, J.E., Hernández A., Gladden L.B. (2007). Blood lactate measurements and analysis during exercise: A guide for clinicians. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 1(4), 558-569.
15.Hay, J.G. (2002). Cycle rate, length and speed of progression in human locomotion. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 18, 257-270.
16.Hellsten, Y., Nyberg, M. (2015). Cardiovascular Adaptations to Exercise Training. Comprehensive Physiology, 15, 6 (1), 1-32.
17.Larsen, H.B. (2003). Kenyan dominance in distance running. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology a-Molecular & Integrative Physiology 136, (1), 161-170.
18.Lee T.D., Swinnen S.P., Serrien D.J. (1994). Cognitive effort and motor learning. Quest, 46, 328-344.
19.Micklewright, D., Angus, C., Suddaby, J., St Clair Gibson, A., Sandercock, G., Chinnasamy, C. (2012). Pacing strategy in schoolchildren differs with age and cognitive development. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 44 (2), 362-369.
20.Pérez, P., Llana, S., Brizuela, G., Encarnación, A. (2009). Effects of three feedback conditions on aerobic swim speeds. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 8, 30-36.
21.Ponsot, E., Dufour, S.P., Zoll. J., Doutrelau, S., N'Guessan. B., Geny, B., Hoppeler, H., Lampert, E., Mettauer, B., Ventura-Clapier, R., Richard, R. (2006). Exercise training in normobaric hypoxia in endurance runners. II. Improvement of mitochondrial properties in skeletal muscle. Journal of applied physiology, 100, (4), 1249-57.
22.Rizzato, A., Marcolin, G., Rubini, A., Olivato, N., Fava, S., Paoli, A., Bosco, G. (2017). Critical velocity in swimmers of different ages. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness [in press].
23.Schmidt, R.A., Lee, T.D. (2013). Motor learning and performance. From principles to application. 5th edition. Human Kinetics, Champaign, Illinois, 255-284.
24.Scruton, A., Baker, J., Roberts, J., Basevitch, I., Merzbach, V., Gordon, D. (2015). Pacing accuracy during an incremental step test in adolescent swimmers. Journal of Sports Medicine, 6, 249-57.
25.Sharkey, B., Gaskill, S. (2013). Fitness & Health. 7th edition. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics.
26.Szczepan, S., Zatoń, K. (2017). Validation of the new visual swimming pace control system in real-time. Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine, 19, 3, 93-104.
27.Szczepan, S., Zatoń, K., Klarowicz, A. (2016). The effect of concurrent visual feedback on the controlled swimming speed. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism. Polish Journal of Sport Tourism, 23, 3-6.
28.Thoma, J.R., Nelson, J.K., Silverman, S.J. (2015). Research methods in physical activity. 7th edition. Human Kinetics, Champaign, Illinois 166-167.
29.Turner, A., Smith, T., Coleman, S.G. (2008). Use of an audio-paced incremental swimming test in young national-level swimmers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 3, 68-70.
30.Vezos, N., Gourgoulis, V., Aggeloussis, N., Kasimatis, P., Christoforidis, C., Mavromatis, G. (2007). Underwater stroke kinematics during breathing and breath-holding front crawl swimming. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6, 58-62.
31.Wilmore, J.H., Costill, D., Kenney, W.L. (2008). Physiology of Sport and Exercise. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics.
32.Zatoń, K, Szczepan, S. (2014). The Impact of Immediate Verbal Feedback on the Improvement of Swimming Technique. Journal of Human Kinetics, 41, 129-137.
33.Zatoń, K., Kędrak, M., Rejman, M. (2016). Synchronized feedback (mirror image) and learning of symmetrical movement activities in breaststroke-kick swimming - pilot study. In: S. Szczepan (ed.), Book of Abstract: The 8th International Symposium Science & Swimming (pp. 54-55). Wroclaw: Ata-Druk.