Remarks made in the article are connected with issues mentioned in the researcher’s
earlier works. They refer to a grammatical meaning in contemporary law texts.
Speaking about hierarchical dependence, the author deals with the meaning of ‘the
one who allows somebody to do something’. More precisely, the article is about a participant
of an action who allows other participant of the same action to take up a given
The analysis has a syntax character. Its fundamental aim is to describe these
elements of a sentence structure thanks to which the sentence is going to have a given
grammatical meaning. Moreover, the analysis provides closer information about participants.
This information infl uences activities of other participants of an action. It points to
a status of these participants and their place in administration and law space.