Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine

ISSN: 2300-9705     eISSN: 2353-2807    OAI
CC BY-SA   Open Access   DOAJ  DOAJ

Issue archive / Vol. 9, No. 1/2015
Impact of Nine Month Health Training and a Single Exercise on Changes in Ghrelin, Leptin and Free Fatty Acids Levels in Women’s Blood

Authors: Ewa Bakońska-Pacoń
Physiology and Biochemistry Department, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland

Piotr Dzięgiel
Histology and Embryology Department, Medical u niversity, Wroclaw, Poland ; Department of Physiotherapy, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland

Małgorzata Kałwa
Theory of Sport Department, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland

Eugenia Murawska-Ciałowicz
Physiology and Biochemistry Department, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland

Iwona Wierzbicka-Damska
Physiology and Biochemistry Department, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland
Keywords: ghrelin leptin free fatty acids women health training single exercise
Data publikacji całości:2015
Page range:11 (5-15)


The aim of the research was to assess changes in ghrelin, leptin and free fatty acids (FFA) levels in women’s blood after training. The research was carried out in women aged 45.55 ±11.33 years and with the BMI of 26.49 ±4.49. Health training at 50–66% VO2max took place twice a week for 9 months. In the baseline phase and in the 3rd, 6th and 9th month of the training, body mass and composition were measured, cardiorespiratory fitness was checked after a 10-minute exercise test on a cycloergometer, and fasting levels of ghrelin, leptin and FFA in the serum were assayed and 15 minutes after the exercise test. Body mass was reduced in the 6th month of the training. Fasting ghrelin level increased because of training, leptin and FFA decreased. After single 10-minute exercises performed every 3 months level of ghrelin and FFA increased while leptin decreased. An increase in ghrelin level in the blood after the single exercise can be the result of negative energy expenditure. An increase in fasting ghrelin level after training can be one of the adaptive physiological mechanisms connected with energy saving. A mechanism that is switched on as a result of a long-lasting stimulus that leads to energy losses, reduction in body mass and a decrease in leptin level in the blood.
Download file

Article file


1.Andrews Z.B. Central mechanisms involved in the orexigenic actions of ghrelin. Peptides 2011; 32: 2248–2255.
2.Ariyasu H., Takaya K., Tagami T., Ogawa Y., Hosoda K., Akamizu T., Suda M., Koh T., Natsui K., Toyooka S., Shirakami G., Usui T., Shimatsu A., Doi K., Hosoda H., Kojima M., Kangawa K., Nakao K. Stomach is a major source of circulating ghrelin, and feeding
3.Broglio F., Gottero C., Van Koetsveld P., Prodam F., Destefanis S., Benso A., Gauna C., Hofland L., Arvat E., van der Lely A.J., Ghigo E. Acetylcholine regulates ghrelin secretion in humans. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2004; 89: 2429–2433.
4.Broom D.R., Batterham R.L., King J.A., Stensel D.J. Influence of resistance and aerobic exercise on hunger, circulating levels of acylated ghrelin, and peptide YY in healthy males. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 2009; 296: 29–35
5.Broom D.R., Stensel D.J., Bishop N.C., Burns S.F., Miyasashita M. Exercise – induced suppression of acylated ghrelin in humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 2007; 102: 2165–2171.
6.Carling D., Sanders M.J., Woods A. The regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by upstream kinases. Int. J. Obes. 2008; 32 (Suppl. 4): S55–S59
7.Cummings D.E., Purnell J.Q., Frayo R.S., Schmidova K., Wisse B.E., Weigle D.S. A preprandial rise in plasma ghrelin levels suggests a role in meal initiation in humans. Diabetes 2001; 50: 1714 –1719.
8.Date Y., Nakazato M., Hashiguchi S., Dezaki K., Mondal M.S., Hosoda H., Kojima M., Kangawa K., Arima T., Matsuo H., Yada T., Matsukura S. Ghrelin is present in pancreatic alpha-cells of humans and rats and stimulates insulin secretion. Diabetes 2002; 51:
9.Enriori P.J., Andrews Z.B., Cowley M.A. Ghrelin: neuropeptide regulator of metabolism. In: Ghrelin in health and disease. Contemporary Endocrinology, eds. R.G. Smith, S.M. Thorner. New York, Humana Press, Springer Science+Business Media, 2012; 10: 111–130
10.Erdmann J., Tahbaz R., Lippl F., Wagenpfeil S., Schusdziarra V. Plasma ghrelin levels during exercise – effects of intensity and duration. Reg. Peptides. 2007; 143: 127–135.
11.Foster-Schubert K.E., McTiernan A., Frayo R.S. Human plasma ghrelin levels increase during a one-year exercise program. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2005; 90: 820–825.
12.Garber C.E., Blissmer B., Deschenes M.R., Franklin B.A., Lamonte M.J., Lee I.M., Nieman D.C., Swain D.P. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal
13.Gnanapavan S., Kola B., Bustin S.A., Morris D.G., McGee P., Fairclough P., Bhattacharya S., Carpenter R., Grossman A.B., Korbonits M. The tissue distribution of the mRNA of ghrelin and subtypes of its receptor, GHS-R, in humans. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab
14.Hagobian T.A., Sharoff C.G., Stephens B.R., Wade G.N., Silva J.E., Chipkin S.R., Braun B. Effects of exercise on energy-regulating hormones and appetite in men and women. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 2009; 296: 233–242.
15.Hansen T.K., Dall R., Hosoda H., Kojima M., Kangawa K., Christiansen J.S., Jørgensen J.O. Weight loss increases circulating levels of ghrelin in human obesity. Clin. Endocrinol. 2002; 56: 203–206.
16.Hardie D.G., Ross F.A., Hawley S.A. AMPK: a nutrient and energy sensor that maintains energy homeostasis. Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2012; 13, 251–262.
17.Jürimäe J., Jürimäe T., Purge P. Plasma ghrelin is altered after maximal exercise in elite male rowers. Exp. Biol. Med. 2007; 232: 904–909.
18.Kelishadi R., Hashemipourt M., Mohammadifard N., Alikhassy H., Adeli K. Short- and long-term relationship of serum ghrelin with changes in body composition and the metabolic syndrome in prepubescent obese children following two different weight loss progr
19.King J.A., Wasse L.K., Stensel D.J., Nimmo M.A. Exercise and ghrelin. A narrative overview of research. Appetite 2013; 68: 83–91
20.Kirchner H., Tschöp M., Tong J. GOAT and the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. In: Ghrelin in health and disease. Contemporary Endocrinology, eds. R.G. Smith, S.M. Thorner. New York, Humana Press, Springer Science+Business Media, 2012; 10: 131
21.Kozakowski J., Rabijewski M., Zgliczyński W. Ghrelin – growth hormone releasing and orexigenic hormone in men declines with age, insulin and with decrease in testosterone concentration. Neuro. Endocrinol. Lett. 2008; 29: 100–106
22.Kraemer R.R., Castracane V.D. Exercise and humoral mediators of peripheral energy balance: ghrelin and adiponectin. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2007; 232: 184–194.
23.Leidy H.J., Gardner J.K., Frye B.R., Snook M.L., Schuchert M.K., Richard E.L., Williams N.I. Circulating ghrelin is sensitive to changes in body weight during a diet and exercise program in normal-weight young women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2004; 89:
24.Lopez M., Lage R., Saha A.K., Pérez-Tilve D., Vázquez M.J., Varela L., Sangiao-Alvarellos S., Tovar S., Raghay K., Rodríguez- -Cuenca S., Deoliveira R.M., Castañeda T., Datta R., Dong J.Z., Culler M., Sleeman M.W., Alvarez C.V., Gallego R., Lelliott C.J.,
25.Lopez M., Saha A.K., Dieguez C., Vidal-Puig A. The AMPK – malonyl-CoA – CPT1 axis in the control of hypothalamic neuronal function – reply. Cell Metabol. 2008a; 8: 176
26.Lopez M., Varela L., Vazquez M.J., Rodríguez-Cuenca S., González C.R., Velagapudi V.R., Morgan D.A., Schoenmakers E., Agassandian K., Lage R., Martínez de Morentin P.B., Tovar S., Nogueiras R., Carling D., Lelliott C., Gallego R., Orešič M., Chatterjee K.
27.Makovey J., Naganathant V., Seibel M., Sambrook P. Gender differences in plasma ghrelin and its relations to body composition and bone- an opposite-sex twin study. Clin. Endocrinol. 2007; 66: 530–537
28.Martins C., Morgan L.M., Bloom S.R., Robertson M.D. Effects of exercise on gut peptides, energy intake and appetite. J. Endocrinol. 2007; 193: 251–258.
29.Marzullo P., Salvadori A., Brunani A. Acylated ghrelin decreases during acute exercise in the lean and obese state. Clin. Endocrinol. 2008; 69: 970–971.
30.Nogueiras R., Tschöp M.H., Zigman J.M. Central nervous system regulation of energy metabolism: ghrelin versus leptin. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 2008; 1126: 14–29
31.Nogueiras R., Wiedmer P., Perez-Tilve D., Veyrat-Durebex C., Keogh J.M., Sutton G.M., Pfluger P.T., Castaneda T.R., Neschen S., Hofmann S.M., Howles P.N., Morgan D.A., Benoit S.C., Szanto I, Schrott B., Schürmann A., Joost H.G., Hammond C., Hui D.Y., Wood
32.Polińska B., Matowicka- Karna J., Kemona H. Role of ghrelin in organism. Adv. Hyg. Exp. Med. 2011; 65: 1–7
33.Rak-Mardyla A. Ghrelin role in hypothalamus – pituitary – varian axis. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 2013; 64: 695–704.
34.Rämson R., Jürimäe J., Jürimäe T., Mäestu J. The effect of 4-week training period on plasma neuropeptide Y, leptin and ghrelin responses in male rowers. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2012; 112, 1873–1880.
35.Sangiao-Alvarellos S., Varela L., Vazquez M.J., Da Boit K., Saha A.K., Cordido F., Diéguez C., López M. Influence of ghrelin and GH deficiency on AMPK and hypothalamic lipid metabolism. J. Neuroendocrinol. 2010; 22: 543–556
36.Scerif M., Kola B., Korbonits M. Ghrelin regulation of AMPK in the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. In: Ghrelin in health and disease. Contemporary Endocrinology, eds. R.G. Smith, S.M. Thorner. New York, Humana Press, Springer Science+Business Media,
37.Schneeberger M., Claret M. Recent insights into the role of hypothalamic AMPK signaling cascade upon metabolic control. Front. Neurosci. 2012; 6: 185.
38.Shiiya T., Ueno H., Toshinai K., Kawagoe T., Naito S., Tobina T., Nishida Y., Shindo M., Kangawa K., Tanaka H., Nakazato M. Significant lowering of plasma ghrelin but not des-acyl ghrelin in response to acute exercise in men. Endocrin. J. 2011; 58: 335–34
39.Stokes K.A., Sykes D., Gilbert K.L., Chen J.W., Frystyk J. Brief, high intensity exercise alters serum ghrelin and growth hormone concentrations but not IGF-I, IGF-II or IGF-I bioactivity. Growth Horm. IGF Res. 2010; 20: 289–294.
40.Theander-Carrillo C., Wiedmer P., Cettour-Rose P., Nogueiras R., Perez-Tilve D., Pfluger P., Castaneda T.R., Muzzin P., Schürmann A., Szanto I., Tschöp M.H., Rohner-Jeanrenaud F. Ghrelin action in the brain controls adipocyte metabolism. Clin. Invest. 200
41.Toshinai K., Yamaguchi H., Sun Y., Smith R.G., Yamanaka A., Sakurai T., Date Y., Mondal M.S., Shimbara T., Kawagoe T., Murakami N., Miyazato M., Kangawa K., Nakazato M. Des-acyl ghrelin induces food intake by a mechanism independent of the growth hormone
42.Tschöp M., Smiley D.L., Heiman M.L. Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents. Nature 2000; 407: 908–913.
43.Tschöp M., Weyer C., Tataranni P.A., Devanarayan V., Ravussin E., Heiman M.L. Circulating ghrelin levels are decreased in human obesity. Diabetes 2001; 50: 707–709
44.Tsubone T., Masaki T., Katsuragi I., Tanaka K., Kakuma T., Yoshimatsu H. Ghrelin regulates adiposity in white adipose tissue and UCP1 mRNA expression in brown adipose tissue in mice. Reg. Peptides 2005; 130: 97–103.
45.Van der Lely A.J., Tschöp M., Heiman M.L., Ghigo E. Biological, physiological, pathophysiological, and pharmacological aspects of ghrelin. Endocr. Rev. 2004; 25: 426–457.
46.Varela L., Vázquez M.J., Cordido F., Nogueiras R., Vidal-Puig A., Diéguez C., López M. Ghrelin and lipid metabolism: key partners in energy balance. J. Mol. Endocrinol. 2011; 46: R43–R63
47.Velásquez D.A., Martínez G., Romero A. The central sirtuin 1/p53 pathway is essential for the orexigenic action of ghrelin. Diabetes 2011; 60: 1177–1185.
48.Vestergaard E.T., Dall R., Lange K.H.W., Kjaer M., Christiansen J.S., Jorgensen J.O.L. The ghrelin response to exercise before and after growth hormone administration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 92: 297–303
49.Zajadacz B., Skarpańska-Stejnborn A., Brzenczek-Owczarzak W., Juszkiewicz A., Naczk M., Adach Z. The influence of physical exercise on alterations in concentrations of neuropeptyde Y, leptin and other selected hormonal and metabolic parameters in sports p