Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego. Acta Politica

Currently: Acta Politica Polonica

ISSN: 0867-0617    OAI    DOI: 10.18276/ap.2015.31-04

Issue archive / 1/2015 (31)
The (Para)diplomacy of Scotland towards Asian Countries

Authors: Tomasz Czapiewski
Uniwersytet Szczeciński, Instytut Politologii i Europeistyki
Keywords: Scotland Asia devolution foreign policy paradiplomacy
Year of publication:2015
Page range:18 (59-76)
Cited-by (Crossref) ?:


This article aims at presenting the activity of Scotland as a sub-state entity with reference to the field of its foreign policy. Its main assumption is that the concept of foreign policy has significantly changed in recent decades. The term most often used to describe this phenomenon is “paradiplomacy” understood as the involvement of non/state actors in autonomous diplomatic practices. The article will argue that Scotland’s activity within the international arena allows for it being considered as paradiplomatic, even protodiplomatic. It will be further demonstrated that the most important target of Scotland’s paradiplomatic activity in Asia is China. The motivations of the Scottish paradiplomacy towards Asian countries can be seen on the regional, state and external levels. The article concludes that the relations between Scotland and the United Kingdom as regards foreign policy can be studied as bridging the complementary and discretion models.  
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