In the essay I discuss theories of education inspired by Karl Marx’s thought. His most important concepts with regard to the topic are the theory of alienation of the human being, a postulate of realization of human potential and a conception of ideology of the ruling class. First I refer to Antonio Gramsci who was preoccupied with an issue of shaping social consciousness. He didn’t support Marx’s point that it is shaped only by the economic base, also acting in the field of culture and education can break a conservative-capitalist hegemony. Then I discuss Paulo Freire’s pedagogy of the oppressed and feminist standpoint theory. They are both grounded in Marxist concept of ideology. Ruling groups – e.g. colonialists, men in patriarchy – impose their worldview on people they oppress. It is biased and it justifies inequalities. It should be confronted with a vision deriving from experience of those who are oppressed. Another conception analyzed was a capability approach of Martha Nussbaum. It postulates that everyone should be granted possibilities to realize their potentials derived from ten core capabilities. These are life, bodily health, bodily integrity, practical reason, senses, imagination and thought, emotions, affiliation, play, control over one’s environment, and other species – animals, plants, the world of nature. Finally I refer to Theodor W. Adorno’s conception of authoritarian personality and to Jürgen Habermas’ critical sociology. I argue that liberal perspective, that e.g. Martha Nussbaum referred to, is not contradictory to Marxism in the field of theory of education.